Captain Wayne Rooney was left out of the England squad because of the “good form” of other players, said coach Gareth Southgate.
England’s all-time leading goalscorer, who has 119 caps, has been overlooked for June’s matches against Scotland and France.
Southgate said: “We’ve a lot of players playing exceptionally well in the area of the pitch that Wayne plays.”
Rooney has only started 15 league games for Manchester United this season.
The 31-year-old – with 53 international goals – was also not included in Southgate’s previous squad in March for the matches against Lithuania and Germany because he was not fully fit after a leg injury.
But even when fit, his appearances at club level have been reduced since manager Jose Mourinho took over at United last summer.
“I said last time [in March] that he was a bit short of matches – he’s had some matches now but we’ve got players that have done really, really well for us in Adam Lallana and Dele Alli,” added Southgate.
“We’ve got Marcus Rashford, Harry Kane coming back and Jermain Defoe who did really well for us last time, while Jamie Vardy’s been in excellent form in the second half of the season.
“I can’t dress it up any other way. Other players are in really good form and deserve to keep their place.”
England travel to Hampden Park on 10 June for their qualifier against Scotland. Southgate’s side lead Group F with 13 points after five games. Scotland are fourth with seven points.
They then travel to France for a friendly on 13 June.
|Rooney’s dwindling Premier League appearances|
|Games played||Minutes||Games started||Sub appearances|
Spurs full-back gets first taste
Tottenham right-back Kieran Trippier has been called up for the first time for the World Cup qualifier in Glasgow and friendly at the Stade de France.
Stoke goalkeeper Jack Butland returns, having recovered from the ankle injury suffered against Germany in March 2016.
Burnley centre-back Michael Keane sits out, having missed the Clarets’ last three games through injury, and Everton midfielder Ross Barkley has a small injury.
Kane boost for Southgate
The inclusion of Rashford, 19, in the senior squad means he will now not link up with the under-21s for this summer’s European Championship.
Meanwhile, Tottenham striker Kane’s return marks the first time Southgate has been able to select the Premier League golden boot winner, who has missed all six of the manager’s matches through injury.
Defender Ben Gibson, who was relegated with his team Middlesbrough, is called up again. The 24-year-old and Trippier are the only members of the squad yet to win a cap.
‘Climb-down on Rashford’ – analysis
BBC Radio 5 live chief football reporter Ian Dennis:
Wayne Rooney’s omission again might generate the headlines, but the inclusion of 19-year-old Marcus Rashford should focus the debate on England’s future.
The Manchester United striker’s involvement with the senior squad means Rashford will not be going to Poland with the Under 21s for this summer’s European Championship.
I spoke with the player in March and he said he would leave it to others to decide on what was best for his development. It will be seen as a climb-down by the FA as United boss Jose Mourinho gets his way.
The decision goes against everything that the FA has said on the importance of ‘tournament experience’, while U21s manager Aidy Boothroyd was keen to take his strongest side to Poland.
As for Wayne Rooney… I wouldn’t write off his international career just yet. He won’t retire, but he must decide what’s best for his club future to stand any chance of fighting his way back into the England squad.
Full 25-man England squad
Jack Butland (Stoke), Fraser Forster (Southampton), Joe Hart (Torino, on loan from Man City), Tom Heaton (Burnley)
Ryan Bertrand (Southampton), Gary Cahill (Chelsea), Nathaniel Clyne (Liverpool), Aaron Cresswell (West Ham), Ben Gibson (Middlesbrough), Phil Jones (Man Utd), Chris Smalling (Man Utd), John Stones (Man City), Kieran Trippier (Tottenham), Kyle Walker (Tottenham)
Dele Alli (Tottenham), Eric Dier (Tottenham), Adam Lallana (Liverpool), Jesse Lingard (Man Utd), Jake Livermore (West Brom), Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain (Arsenal), Raheem Sterling (Man City)
Jermain Defoe (Sunderland), Harry Kane (Tottenham), Marcus Rashford (Man Utd), Jamie Vardy (Leicester)
U21s prepare for Euros
Southampton pair Nathan Redmond and James Ward-Prowse have been selected for the England Under-21 squad for their training camp before the European Championship in June.
Both players earned their first caps for the senior side against Germany in March and will be making their last appearances for Aidy Boothroyd’s side before becoming too old to play.
Sunderland goalkeeper Jordan Pickford has also been included in the squad, as has Celtic striker Patrick Roberts.
The deadline for countries to name their final 23-man squad for the tournament in Poland is 6 June.